Abstracts No 55   12/2/2015 2:48:11 PM
 1. Hamornizing Vietnam’s Standards with International Ones in the Trend of Economic Integration


A/Prof.Dr. Do thi Ngoc


In the current trend of integration, Vietnam’s ability to penetrate the international market is measured by its manufaturers’ ability to meet certain regulatory technical standards set forth by overseas markets. As such, a set of technical standards is a ‘common language’ spoken in the environment of international trade, which is an important factor to boost up trade relationships among countries. While the WTO agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) emphasizes the crucial importance of international standards, Vietnam, like many other nations in the world, has for years develped and adopted greatly different Vietnam’s standards, which not only creates hindrance to the promotion of trade relationships at micro level but causes difficulties for businesses and consumers as well. For this reason, in the last few years, “standard harmonization” has been supported by many nations and set up a new trend in the international standardization community. In Vietnam over the last decade, Standardization practice has been implemented with encouraging results. However, businesses and national standards organizations have faced with numerous difficulties and chanllenges. The paper, therefore, presents theoritical background of standardization, analyses challenges and opportunities of Vietnam in conformity with the standards and suggests solutions to effectively align Vietnamese standards with regional and international ones.

The paper covers the following contents:

(1)       an analysis on the need to harmonize standards

(2)       the current situation and outcome of Vietnam’s standard harmonization practice

(3)       challenges and opportunties faced by Vietnam in standardization

(4)       some suggestions to improve Vietnam’s standard harmonization practices in order for Vietnam economy to further integrate into the global one

Since standard harmonization may be defined as minimizing differences in international trade, elements of a nation’s standardization include: (1) adopting international, regional and national standards. Depending on the level of compatibility, a nation may adopt international, regional or other nations’ standards as its own standards. These adopted standards must be incorporated into the national ones, be promulgated, conformed to and equally treated. (2) participating in the development of international and regional standards and then accepting them as national ones; (3) hamonizing the procedures and process for developing national standards with those going down internationally and regionally.

The paper analyses the need for standardization in Vietnam in the context of globalization. The situation of standard harmonization is also presented to identify opportunities and challenges faced by Vietnam. Moreover, the paper identifies technical barriers to standardization including: (1) a nation’s conformity to mandatory documents on standardization and application of standards to restrict goods import (2) environment regulations and (3) regulations on health and safety at work.

To make the standard harmonization process a success, the author puts forth some suggestions as follows: (1) using international standards as a basis for the issuance and promulgation of Vietnam’s technical regulations and  standards; drawing on guidance or experience by international standards bodies as a reference for the establishment of suitable assessment procedures; (2) using modern, updated technology to meet certain requirements on product technical specifications; (3) investing in intensive training to improve the staff and workers’ skills and knowledge; (4) improving quality management by adopting international quality control standards like ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO 26000, or ISO 22000. Standard harmonization is a prerequisite for international integration. Turning Vietnam’s standard system into the one which is high-tech and aligned with international standards will significantly improve the competitiveness of Vietnam’s economy, goods and services in the international market. Therefore, harmonization is a must, which requires support and coordination from relevant industries, line ministries and scientists to develop more harmonized standards in the process of integration and development of the nation’s economy.                        


2. Distributor Brand Development in Vietnam

A/Prof.Dr. Nguyen Van Minh

Vietnamese enterprises are facing difficulties in their course of doing business, which is caused by unstable and declining global and domestic economies. In almost all sectors and fields, high inventory is common. In addition, purchasing power is going down and the market is standing still. To make things worse, Vietnamese enterprises are facing heavy competition from imported goods and foreign enterprises. Given this context, the distribution industry in general and distribution organizations in particular are playing a more and more important role in distributing goods and revitalizing the market, helping to boost production and to stabilize market prices. In order to survive through the recent economic recession, it is necessary for distributors to devise new surviving strategies and operational activities. Developing distributor brands is one of the basic measures for businesses to improve their operating capacity, competitiveness and negotiating power with manufacturers; to establish long-term relationships with manufactureres and to win customers’ hearts.  The paper outlines preliminary concepts, strategic orientations and ways of developing Vietnam’s distributor brands given the current condition.

The paper covers the following contents: (1) Theoritical background, in this part, the writer presents and analyzes concepts of brand, brand classification, trademark, brand elements, different types of distributor brands, and benefits of distributor brand development. The (2) part deals with the current situation of distributor brand development in Vietnam. In this part, factors affecting the development of distributor brands are touched upon such as the legal environment, competition from other strong brands and national brands, customers’ needs and ways to satisfy customers’ wants. This part also analyses some types of distrubutor brands namely point-of-sale brand, manufacturer brand and integrated distributor brand.

In order to develop distributor brands given Vietnam’s current  conditions, the writer recommends some suggestions for distributors which include: (1) having good knowledge of strategies for distributor brand development so as to map out suitable moves, solutions and resources investment plans; (2) identifying the overall process for building and developing brands; (3) doing target marketing to identify suitable distributor brand for the business. Of the three types of distributor brands, the “point-of-sale” is more applicable to small-scale distributors, the “manufaturer” is more suited to agents and industrial distributors with specialized distribution networks while the “integrated” should be applied to large-scale distributors who have their own distribution chains or products bearing their own names (both sell-made or tailor-made); (4) adequately investing in brand advertising and communication; collaborating with suppliers in trade promotion; (5) working closely with suppliers of branded goods to ensure the quality, quantity and origin of the goods; gaining commitments of involved parties to the fulfilment of responsibilities towards customers; (6) identifying product items which need to be developed into indistributor brands; (7) working in close coordination with manufacturers and state bodies for goods management and prevention and fighting against brand/brand name infrigements to protect customers’ rights; (8) improving communication; perfecting the organizational structure to better managage supplier and customer relationships; (9) having a seperate department and workforce being held accountable for brand management; investing adequately in brand management


3. Perfecting Logistics System in Developing Sustainable Fruit Supply Chain in Vietnam

A/Prof. Dr. Luc Thi Thu Huong

Vietnam is a country with advantages in fruit-bearing trees thanks to its favorable climate and land conditions. However, its competitiveness and consumptions in both internal and external markets are still low, not corresponding to the potential it possesses. To solve the problem, the paper focuses on studying the role of logistics system in developing sustainable fruit supply chain in Vietnam. It analyzes the real situation of Vietnam fruit supply chain, discusses the requirements of sustainable development in global integration and logistics potential contributions in achieving sustainable development and raising competitiveness of Vietnamese fruits.

The paper discusses the five main points: (1) Sustainable fruit supply chain and the role of Logistics system; (2) Logistics system in fruit supply chain; (3) Vietnam fruit supply chain; (4) The real situation of logistics in Vietnam fruit supply chain; and (5) solutions to perfect logistics system for sustainable fruit supply chain in Vietnam.

By analyzing the essence of sustainable development and sustainable supply chain, the researcher defines the role and requirements of logistics system in developing sustainable fruit supply chain in Vietnam which – Ensure the rate of delivery; - Ensure product quality; - Balance the fluctuations between supply and demand; - Identify the right lot scale; - Control the temperature; - Trace back to the goods origin; - Well manage the importation and exportation as well as ensure such social and environmental requirements as: - Ensure the biggest benefits for agricultural workers; - Reduce product loss in the whole logistics process; - Reduce exhaust fumes in transportation and preservation; - Reduce energy loss in refrigerated storage and in transportation; - Enhance the cooperation between members in the chain; - Optimize supply chain and route…

The second part of the paper clarifies the elements of logistics system in fruit supply chain, which are defined as a system of operations which starts with input supply and ends with delivery to end-user. There are many organizations engaged in logistics system including trade intermediaries, the units providing transportation services, storage and retailing, etc. working together. By analyzing the real situation of Vietnam fruit supply chain with over 80 percent consumed domestically, Vietnam fruit supply chain, as described in the paper, consists of key members such as the units providing transplants and agriculture materials; growers (agricultural workers); buyers (mongers); packing storage; whole-sale markets; processing factories; domestics consumers; export markets. The researcher analyzes the real situation of Vietnam fruit supply chain through the specific operation groups conducting purchases and reserves. In the stages, the primary and secondary mongers face with a lot of difficulties due to dispersed and small areas under cultivation; the packing, loading and unloading may hinder fruit optimal life-span and quality maintenance; transportation is diversified, but due to fruit features there still exist the problems of high idle running, great costs, not best-case transportation route, big transportation cost. Information management, especially information transferring and sharing between members in the chain is still incoherent and unsystematic. In general, logistics activity in Vietnam fruit supply chain from post-harvest to the market is insufficient, leading to a reduction in fruit quality, fluctuations in whole-sale price, and high loss rate which accounts for approximately 20-35% of the output.

Several solutions to perfect logistics system for sustainable fruit supply chain in Vietnam include: (1) Expanding storage and refrigerated transportation; (2) developing the application of packaging technology and fresh fruit preservation; (3) meeting the requirements of packaging, loading and unloading; (4) designing transportation routes appropriately; (5) developing the information system; (6) enhancing the cooperation between members; (7) developing infrastructure of agriculture in general and fruit in particular; (8) perfecting and improving technology; (9) supporting trade promotion; (10) supporting the development of cooperative societies.


4. A Study on the Elements Affecting Brand Loyalty of Vietnamese Consumers to Bottled Water Products

Ho Chi Dung, MA., Dr. Nguyen Ngoc Quang

Brand building and development is vital to Vietnamese enterprises. Essentially, brand building is creating the brand loyalty of the majority of customers. Therefore, there are scores of studies on brand loyalty over the world. However, in Vietnam the research on this issue is still limited. In the market for bottled water products there are a number of different brands. The enterprises trading in bottled water are competing severely to survive and develop in the market. Hence, it is necessary to study the brand loyalty towards bottled water products of Vietnamese consumers to help bottled water enterprises in strategy and marketing policy making to keep and develop loyal customer group. This paper aims to: (1) identify the elements affecting brand loyalty towards bottled water products of Vietnamese consumers; (2) perfect the scale system to measure those elements; (3) measure the influence of the elements on brand loyalty towards bottled water products of Vietnamese consumers; (4) suggest several solutions to bottled water enterprises.

The main parts of the paper are: (1) The theoretical background of elements affecting brand loyalty; (2) Methodology; (3) Research Findings; and (4) Conclusions and petitions.

In the theoretical background, the researchers mention and analyze some models of brand loyalty such as Ko-Joon and Sara’s model, Gounaris and Stakhakopoylos’s model, Punniyamoorthy and Raj’s model (2007) as well as give a specific explanation on basic elements of brand loyalty like the connection of consumers, the perceived value of customers, customer satisfaction, brand trust, and brand commitment of customer.

In order to come up with the research results, the researchers clarify their research methods by sampling, sample size, and stratified random sample, questionnaire with 3-variable and 5-variable scale of observation depending on the needed information. In the research findings, the paper presents Cronbach Alpha test, KMO and Barlett test results, evaluates the elements affecting brand loyalty in 7 groups of elements basing on the condition that Eigenvalues is greater than 1. The total explainable variance after 7 groups of elements are withdrawn is equal to 75.6%. The degree of coherence was tested with F test. As it is shown, F = 45.530; sig = 0.000, which means this relation is reliable with a reliability of 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the independent variables have effect on “attitude loyalty” of customers and the multiple linear regression model is coherent with the data file and useable. VIF of all independent variables in the model are all smaller than 2 showing that multi-collinearity of the independent insignificant variables and variables in the model is acceptable.

From the research result, the paper comes up with some conclusions and petitions including: firstly, the research result brings us a scale system to measure the elements affecting brand loyalty towards bottled water products of Vietnamese consumers. Particularly, the connection of customers is measured with 3 variables of observation, function value with 3 variables, social value with 2 variables, price correspondence with 2 variables, brand trust with 3 variables, customer satisfaction with 1 variable, and brand commitment with 3 variables of observation; secondly, the model of elements affecting brand loyalty toward bottled water products of Vietnamese consumer consists of 7 groups: (1) brand commitment; (2) customer satisfaction; (3) product function value; (4) brand trust; (5) price correspondence; (6) product’s social value; and (7) the connection of customer; thirdly, the results show that “brand commitment” and “brand trust” have great effect on the loyalty of Vietnamese customers towards bottled water products. This suggests the enterprises trading in bottled water products in Vietnam attach special importance to building and maintaining customer trust on their branded products. In order to do so, enterprises firstly need to ensure the function value (for example, do not create discomfort in taste and ensure food hygiene) then carry out promotion campaigns to make customers aware of and believe in the product/brand; fourthly, “price correspondence” has quite a great influence on brand loyalty of Vietnamese customers towards bottled water products. Hence, a reasonable price should be considered. As bottled water is a convenience goods, it should be sold at a price that the target customers can use consume it frequently.


5. The Role of CMO (Chief Marketing Officer) and the Enterprise Performance

Dr. Nguyen Hoang

Not only in the world but in Vietnam today, CMO is a position that bears high recruitment demand. However, this position also requires real competence, “the most dangerous job in business” (McGirt, 2007). This shows the importance and influence of this position on the enterprise overall performance. The paper focuses on studying the role of CMO in Vietnamese enterprises and the elements affecting this position. The research findings indicate that the position of CMO has not been paid enough attention in Vietnam. The biggest reasons are the enterprises’ faulty awareness of the position, and the ability of CMOs is still limited. The main entrepreneurial elements that have influence on the status of CMO include the scope of business, the scale and effectiveness of the enterprise in the past. Basing on the analysis, the paper suggests several solutions to help CMOs to strengthen their role and positive effect on the enterprise business performance.

The main parts of the paper include: (1) rationale; (2) methodology; (3) research findings; and (4) some solutions to enhance the role of CMO in enterprise.

By analyzing and defining the role of CMO (communication role, the role of making decisions to invest, develop and manage the relationship between the enterprises with its stakeholders), the power and the factors that affect the role of CMO (status of customer, personal ability, business scope, scale and performance, etc.), basing on secondary data study in combination with survey to get primary data, the researcher comes up with the conclusions: (1) in Vietnamese enterprises at present there still exists a limitation in awareness of the role and impact of CMO; (2) there is a limitation in the awareness of cultures, traditions and markets because most CMOs of established companies in Vietnam are foreigners; (3) the role of CMO in the enterprise are impacted greatly by customer; (4) scope, scale and business performance have great effect on the role of CMO in enterprises.

In order to enhance the role of CMO in enterprises, the researcher suggests the following solutions: (1) CMOs should not only be master of professional knowledge of marketing but also be professional in management to manage the business effectively; (2) it is necessary to improve the awareness and knowledge of the role and elements affecting the role and performance of CMO; (3) enterprises need to make good conditions for CMO to improve their knowledge, learn from and exchange experience with successful CMO of other enterprises; (4) it is necessary to adjust the role of CMO to be match with the marketing structure of the enterprise and finally, the government and related divisions should support enterprises as well as their CMO to improve their ability through training courses, conferences and other activities.


6. Competitive Strategy of 3 to 5-Star Hotels in Vietnam

Dr. Nguyen Hoang Viet

With the application of market positioning approach (M. Porter) to create competitive advantage for enterprises in an industry based on 2 overall competitive strategies of differentiation and cost leadership, the research focuses on examining the relationship between overall competitive strategies including differentiation and cost leadership and business efficiency of 3 to 5-star hotels in Vietnam. The results show that differentiation is a significant competitive strategy affecting customer satisfaction in high-class hotels industry in Vietnam.

The article consists of (1) theoretical background and hypotheses; (2) research methodology; (3) research findings and (4) conclusion.

Based on the theoretical background and research framework of authors in examining the relationship between features of competitive structure and business efficiency, especially agreeing to the conclusion of researches that differentiation and low cost can increase profitability of enterprises as well as applying to specific conditions of hotel industry, research hypotheses in the article include H1a, differentiation strategy has positive effects on financial efficiency of 3 to 5-star hotels in Vietnam; H1b, differentiation strategy has positive effects on customer satisfaction on 3 to 5-star hotels in Vietnam. With the core objective of cost leadership that is to create competitive advantage based on low cost structure of enterprises in the industry, another two hypotheses are made as H2a, cost leadership strategy has positive effects on business efficiency of 3 to 5-star hotels in Vietnam; H2b, cost leadership strategy has positive effects on customer satisfaction on 3 to 5-star hotels in Vietnam. The last hypothesis is H3, customer satisfaction has positive effects on financial efficiency of 3 to 5-star hotels in Vietnam.

To test the hypotheses and produce research conclusions, the author employed sampling in 4 cities of Hanoi, Ha Long, Danang and Hochiminh City with suitable sample size (45 hotels with 58 respondents).

Research results show that (1) differentiation strategy has an effect on customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction can influence financial efficiency of hotels; (2) 3 to 5-star hotels are satisfied with the combination of accommodation product and the differentiation of other services in the hotels; (3) H3 testing results show that like the world situation, in Vietnam’s hotel industry, customer satisfaction can bring higher financial efficiency.

The author’s recommendations include (1) Vietnam’s 3 to 5-star hotels should adopt differentiation strategy and perfect their products and services by providing customers with differentiating values; (2) in order to create their own difference, hotels should identify and select potential market segments; (3) hotels need to develop differentiation strategy based on re-positioning delivered values in their target segments; (4) 3 to 5-star hotels should perfect positioning their brand image by applying core perception factors such as language and brand image on various means of media to build strong brand image on the target market, then supporting the objectives of the differentiation strategy; (5) differentiating values of hotels should be communicated professionally under various forms rather than mass media and finally the key factor is still human including qualifications, skills and attitudes of hotel staff. Therefore, hotels need to focus on improving methods and styles of services, enhancing qualifications, morale and continuously training skills according to industry standards as well as language skills for all staff.


7. Evaluating Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction by SERVPERF Model

Dr. Phan Thi Lien; Nguyen Hue Minh

Services are an essential part of the economy. In Vietnam, service industry is developing rapidly, especially in recent years. In the increasingly competitive market, service quality has played an important role in determining customer satisfaction and been considered as a vital part in every business success. Therefore, in order to survive and develop, businesses are focusing on service quality to increase the customer satisfaction as well as company’s profitability. However, it is still complicated to evaluate service quality and customer satisfaction nowadays because services have no specifications or physical characteristics like goods but a lot of intangible features. The evaluation of service quality should not only base on the result of service provision but on the service providing process as well. Moreover, the evaluation also varies based on each type of customers. The article applies SERVPERF model to suggest a model for evaluating service quality and its relationship with customer satisfaction for enterprises in Vietnam.

The article contains such parts as (1) Nature and relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction; (2) Model for evaluating service quality and customer satisfaction; (3) Application of model for measuring and evaluating service quality: A case study of A Commercial Bank.

In the first part of the article, the authors clarify the nature of service quality and customer satisfaction, their relationship as well as determine the close proportional relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, the higher the service quality, the higher customer satisfaction and vice versa.

To set the background for the research, the article also introduces the model for evaluating service quality and customer satisfaction, in which emphasizes SERVPERF model recommended by Cronin and Taylor in 1992. Based on the theoretical and previous research analysis, the hypotheses for the model include H1: Tangibles and customer satisfaction have positive relationship; H2: Reliability and customer satisfaction have positive relationship; H3: Responsiveness and customer satisfaction have positive relationship; H4: Assurance and customer satisfaction have positive relationship; and H5: Empathy and customer satisfaction have positive relationship.

The authors applied the theoretical model into measuring and evaluating the service quality of a commercial bank in Hanoi. After building the model, the questionnaire was designed to collect customers’ evaluation on the service quality they received at A commercial bank and their evaluation on the satisfaction with the services. The main part of the questionnaire consists of 22 observing variables with 20 observing variables used to measure the customers’ evaluation on five dimensions of service quality (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy – 4 variables each), the other 2 variables measure customer satisfaction with service quality of the bank.

The major recommendations for banks are made as follows: (1) regression analysis shows that DAP_UNG (responsiveness) of service quality has the largest effect on customer satisfaction. Thus, in order to improve service quality, banks should first pay attention to this factor; (2) With the Beta coefficient slightly lower than DAP_UNG, DONG_CAM (Empathy) is also an important factor that helps enhancing customer satisfaction. Empathy means the understanding and care of banks for each customer; (3) The final important factor to customer satisfaction TIN_NLUC – is the combination of reliability and assurance. This factor represents the competence to deliver dependable and accurate services with great professional knowledge and polite attitudes of staff, from which builds customer trust.


8. Nguyen Đang Hai, MA and Prof. Dr. Pham The Long – Fundamental Principles of University – Institute Linkage in Vietnam

In the Resolution of the 6th VCP Central Committee, our Party confirmed the important role of science – technology to the national socio-economic life and one of the measures to develop it is promoting the cooperation/linkage among local and international scientific organizations. For its effectiveness and sustainability, cooperation/linkage should be implemented on a fixed set of principles. In their article, the authors propose fundamental principles to the establishment and maintenance of sustainable university – institute linkage to ensure its effectiveness.

Two main points are presented in the article: (1) Research Model and Solutions; (2) Fundamental principles on university – institute partnership in Vietnam.

In the first part, the authors present research model and solutions, which generalize the natures of partnership, identify different partnership models, such as the research model on university – institute partnership. The authors also uncover the approaches and quality levels of partnership stemming from quality-based relationship theories. Research methodology looks into the concepts and natures of partnership; observes and describes the situation, level and effectiveness of university – institute relationship in Vietnam; evaluates factors affecting and laying prerequisites for the real quality level and effectiveness of the relationship, from which fundamental principles are drawn out to help establish, maintain and develop the sustainable relationship among these entities.

With these research methods, some fundamental principles have been proposed to help universities and institutes better manage their partnership. 9 principles are mentioned in the article: (1) the linkage should be open; (2) it should be built on voluntary base; (3) the linkage should stem from internal to external, from general to particular, from simple to sophisticated level; (4) principles on benefits and fair allocation of benefits [2]; (5) ensuring autonomy of members in the linkage; (6) principles on taking responsibility in the linkage; (7) flexibility in the linkage; (8) fully and creatively implementing principles in the linkage; and (9) the support from authorities of various levels.


9. Dr. Vu Huy Thong and Nguyen Thi Hanh, MA: Factors Affecting Students’ Satisfaction on Education Services in Hai Phong Public Universities

One important trend in the world nowadays is the globalization of intelligence, in which knowledge is created via scientific research activities in universities. Tertiary education is considered a basic ground for students to land on a good job in the future. It is therefore necessary to enhance the university education services. Upon investigating and surveying the studying demand of students in Hai Phong – based public universities, the authors analyze factors affecting the satisfaction of students towards education services in these universities. The research has measured and analyzed 6 major factors affecting their satisfaction, including: Training programs, Extra-curriculum programs, Studying conditions, Facilities and Infrastructure, Lecturers, Administration staff. The authors then put forth conclusions and proposals on improving students’ satisfaction towards tertiary education.

The article consists of 3 main parts. In the first part, the authors generalize Vietnam education quality and present research models: (1) qualitative research helps to identify research objectives, process and findings. After the qualitative research, the initial research model was set up with 6 independent variables: training programs, extra-curriculum programs, studying conditions, lecturers, administration staff, facilities – infrastructure and 1 dependent variable of students’ satisfaction; (2) quantitative research, based on the research objectives and process, uses Likert scale to analyze the findings. This scale, which has 5 levels from 1 to 5 to help investigate the recipients’ evaluation levels, is the most widely used tool in quantitative research to measure the students’ evaluation on factors affecting their satisfaction towards university education. 300 questionnaires were delivered, 295 were collected back. After processed and purified, 5 were rejected. So 290 questionnaires were analyzed, of which 98 were from Maritime Univeristy, 95 from Hai Phong University, 97 from Hai Phong Medical University.

The second part of the article presents research findings on the main criteria: first, students’ expectations, of which the 4 biggest expectations on university’s education services rank: (1) the training programs are appropriate with social demand; (2) lecturers have good professional qualifications; (3) lecturers have good teaching methods; (4) infrastructure and facilities are good; second, models of factors affecting students’ satisfaction, including: training programs, extra-curriculum activities, studying conditions, lecturers, administration staff, infrastructure – facilities which are evaluated on Beta ratio (ranging from 0.112 to 0.215)

From the research methods and findings, the authors make some proposals to improve the quality and satisfaction of the learners towards education services, including: (1) communicating marketing on university education services; (2) improving the quality of the training programs; (3) enhancing the qualification of teaching and administration staff; (4) raising the quality of infrastructure – facilities by upgrading teaching halls and classrooms, installing and renewing laboratory  equipment, building information – centers and libraries to ensure the best conditions and satisfy the higher demand of students and the society. 

Abstracts No 53+54   12/2/2015 2:47:27 PM
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